1. What is ransomware?
Ransomware is a type of malicious software that carries out the cryptoviral extortion attack from crypto-virology that blocks access to data until a ransom is paid and displays a message requesting payment to unlock it. Simple ransomware may lock the system in a way which is not difficult for a knowledgeable person to reverse. More advanced malware encrypts the victim’s files, making them inaccessible, and demands a ransom payment to decrypt them
2. What is Malware?
Malware, short for malicious software, is any software used to disrupt computer or mobile operations, gather sensitive information, gain access to private computer systems, or display unwanted advertising.
3.What is a Cyber-attack?
A Cyber-attack is any type of offensive maneuver employed by nation-states, individuals, groups, or organizations that targets computer information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, and/or personal computer devices by various means of malicious acts usually originating from an anonymous source that either steals, alters, or destroys a specified target by hacking into a susceptible system.
4. What are compilers?
Compilers are programs that convert computer code written in high-level languages intelligible to humans into low-level instructions executable by machines.
5. What Is DHCP?
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a client/server protocol that automatically provides an Internet Protocol (IP) host with its IP address and other related configuration information such as the subnet mask and default gateway.
6. what is phishing?
Phishing is the attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and, indirectly, money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
7. Database: Glossary
ActiveX Data Objects (AD0) – an API from Microsoft that lets a programmer writing Windows applications access a database.
autonomous transaction – in Oracle’s database products, an independent transaction that is initiated by another transaction.
block – in some databases, the smallest amount of data that a program can request.
B-tree – a method of placing and locating files in a database.
catalog – a directory of information about data sets, files, or a database.
commit – the final step in the successful completion of a previously started database change.
CSV file (comma-separated values file) – contains the values in a table with each column value separated by a comma and each row starting a new line.
DAO (Data Access Objects) – API available with Visual Basic that lets a programmer request access to an Access database.
Data – information that has been translated into a form that is more convenient to move or process.
data availability – assurance that data continues to be available at a required level of performance in any situation.
data dictionary – a collection of descriptions of the data objects or items in a data model for the benefit of programmers and others who need to refer to them.
data modeling – the analysis of data objects and the identification of the relationships among these data objects.
data mart – a repository of data gathered from operational data and other sources that are designed to serve a particular community of knowledge workers.
data mining – sorting through data to identify patterns and establish relationships.
data pre-processing – any type of process performed on raw data to prepare it for another processing procedure.
data scrubbing – the process of amending or removing data that is incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or duplicated.
data set – in an IBM mainframe operating system, a named collection of data that contains individual data units formatted in a specific way.
data source name – a data structure that contains the information about a specific database that an ODBC driver needs in order to connect to it.
data warehouse – a central repository for all or significant parts of the data that an enterprise’s various business systems collect.
database – a collection of data that is organized so that its contents can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.
DBA – someone who directs or performs all activities related to maintaining a successful database environment.
DBMS – a program that lets one or more computer users create, manage, and access data in a database.
DB2 – a family of relational database management system (RDBMS) products from IBM that serve a number of different operating system platforms.
DDBMS (distributed database management system) – a centralized application that manages a distributed database as if it were all stored on the same computer.
distributed database – a database whose components are stored on multiple computers within a network.
field – a location for a single piece of data in a database.
FileMaker – a relational database application known for being easy to use and for its ability to serve Web pages dynamically.
flat file – a database model that stores data in text files that can only be accessed sequentially.
foreign key – a key that targets a primary key in another table.
E. F. Codd – IBM programmer responsible for developing the conceptual framework for the relational database and SQL.
HOLAP – hybrid online analytical processing, a combination of ROLAP and MOLAP.
Java Data Objects – an API that enables a Java programmer to access a database implicitly, without having to make explicit SQL statements.
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) – an API specification for connecting programs written in Java to the data in popular databases.
JOLAP (Java Online Analytical Processing) – a Java API for J2EE for data in an online analytical processing (OLAP) application.
Metabase – a database for storing metadata (data that describes data) for a specific purpose.
MOLAP (multidimensional online analytical processing) – online analytical processing (OLAP) that indexes directly into a multidimensional database.
MySQL – an open source relational database management system that uses SQL.
normalization – a multi-stage process of organizing data into tables in such a way that the results of using the database are always unambiguous and as intended.
OODBMS (object-oriented database management system) – a DBMS that supports the modeling and creation of data as objects.
OLAP (online analytical processing) – computer processing that enables a user to easily and selectively extract and view data from different points-of-view.
ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) – open standard API for accessing a database.
the operational data store (ODS) – a type of database often used as an interim area for a data warehouse.
pivot table – a programming tool that allows you to reorganize and summarize selected columns and rows of data in a spreadsheet or database table to obtain the desired report.
PL/SQL – a procedural language extension to SQL used to combine database language and procedural programming language.
primary key – a key in a relational database that is unique for each record, used to identify a particular record.
quad tree – a method of placing and locating files in a database.
query – a request to a database for information, or to update, modify or delete information.
relational database – a database organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the tables.
RDBMS (relational database management system) – a program that lets you create, update, and administer a relational database.
ROLAP (relational online analytical processing) – a form of OLAP that performs dynamic multidimensional analysis of data stored in a relational database.
rollback – the undoing of partly completed database changes when a database transaction is determined to have failed.
row – a group of fields in a database table organized to contain all the information relevant to a specific entity.
schema – the organization or structure for a database.
splay tree – a self-adjusting search algorithm for placing and locating files in a database.
SQL (Structured Query Language) – a standard interactive and programming language for getting information from and updating a database.
SQLJ – a set of programming extensions that allow a programmer using the Java programming language to embed statements that provide SQL database requests.
TSQL – programming extensions that add several features to SQL including transaction control, exception and error handling, row processing, and declared variables.
table – in a relational database, a data structure that organizes the information about a single topic into rows and columns.
tree structure – an algorithm for placing and locating records in a database.
UDA (Universal Data Access) – a model or framework for a single uniform API to different software makers’ databases.
VLDB (very large database) – sometimes used to describe databases occupying magnetic storage in the terabyte range and containing billions of table rows.
view – a temporary organization of data drawn from one or more tables to enable a specific perspective.
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